History and Production
Named after Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), a physicist. In was discovered in 1964 by workers at the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna, Russia. They bombarded plutonium with high energy (more than 110 MeV) neon ions. The element was detected by spontaneous fission observed with a microscope. The isotope-260 was suggested to have produced with a half-life of about 0.3 second. It was the first transactinide element to be discovered.
The scientists at Dubna suggested the name kurchatovium for the new element, in honor of Igor V. Kurchatov (1903-1960), late head of Soviet Nuclear Research. On the other hand, A. Ghiorso and other co-workers at Berkeley has independently identified two and possibly three isotopes of Element 104. The Berkeley groups, however, were not able to reproduce the findings reported by the Dubna groups. The Berkeley experiments were carried out by
bombarding 249Cf with 12C and 13C with energies 69-71 MeV. They proposed for the new element the name rutherfordium which was formally adapted by IUPAC in 1997. Eleven isotopes have now been identified.
Its physical properties are not known since only atomic quantities have been produced so far which quickly dissappear when first prepared.
Interatomic distance: -
Melting point: 2125°C (est.)
Boiling point: 5527°C (est.)
Thermal conductivity/Wm-1K-1: n/a
Density/kgm-3: 23000 (est.)
Standard Thermodynamic Data (atomic gas)
Enthalpy of formation: -
Gibbs free energy of formation: -
Heat capacity: -
Electronic configuration: Electronic configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
Term symbol: 3F2
Electron affinity: - Electronegativity (Pauline): -
Ionization energy (first, second, third): 490.0, -, - kJ/mol