History and Production
The name was given due to the indigo blue line spectrum, as was first discovered by F. Reich and H.T. Richter in 1863. It can be recovered from the flue dusts emitted during the
roasting of the zinc, iron or copper sulfide ores. Its main use is in low-melting alloys and electronic devices such as transistors (with germanium), rectifiers, thermistors, photoconductors, liquid crystal displays etc. It is also used in solders in
sealing metal-nonmetal joints.
It is soft, silvery-white metal with a brilliant luster. It gives out a high-pitched 'cry' when bent and wets glass.
It is usually associated with zainc ores and is only 0.21 ppm in abundance.
Interatomic distance: 325.2 pm
Melting point: 156.6°C
Boiling point: 2072°C
Thermal conductivity/Wm-1K-1: 81.6 (27°C)
Density/kgm-3: 7310 (25°C), 7032 (m.p.)
Standard Thermodynamic Data (atomic gas)
Enthalpy of formation: 243.3 kJ/mol
Gibbs free energy of formation: 208.7 kJ/mol
Entropy: 173.8 J/mol K
Heat capacity: 20.8 J/mol K
Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Term symbol: 2P1/2
Electron affinity: 28.9456 kJ/mol Electronegativity (Pauline): 1.78
Ionization energy (first, second, third): 558.299, 1820.66, 2704.49 kJ/mol